Posted on April 9, 2021
The five nuclear-weapon states of the nuclear non-proliferation reactor (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) are not required to enter into IAEA protection agreements under the non-proliferation regime. However, all five have signed voluntary offer guarantee agreements that allow the IAEA to apply protections for the equipment in selected eligible entities. This is the case with nuclear materials and civilian sites. The five nuclear-weapon States also signed additional protocols to the voluntary supply guarantee agreements. Article III of the IAEA statute gives the Agency, among other things, the power to implement and manage safeguards. If the Governing Council approves a hedging agreement, it authorizes the Director General to conclude the agreement and then implement it. Read more → If the IAEA draws a broader conclusion for a state, it can put in place “integrated security arrangements” tailored to each state. As a result, the resulting security measures will be less cumbersome and less costly for the state. The five nuclear-weapon States of nuclear non-proliferation of nuclear weapons have entered into safeguard agreements for some or all of their peaceful nuclear activities. As part of these voluntary supply agreements, agencies are notified by the State concerned to the IAEA and offered for the application of safeguard measures. The IAEA applies safeguards under voluntary agreements to supply nuclear materials at selected facilities. According to the IAEA, there are 175 states with comprehensive protection agreements by June 2020.
Each year, the IAEA reports to the Agency`s Board of Governors, made up of IAEA member states, on the implementation of security measures. The history of the IAEA`s protection measures begins at the forefront of the nuclear regime, which has focused on the debate on the elimination of the remaining fissile material. Dwight Eisenhowers` 1953 peace speech was the first step towards regulating nuclear activity to ensure that only peaceful ends stimulate scientific development. It proposed that states with remaining fissile material should contribute to an international fuel bank. The IAEA was proposed in 1954 to control the distribution and disposal of used nuclear materials.  Negotiations on safeguard measures were challenged as they would hinder the promotion of nuclear energy.  However, security measures help to strengthen the line between the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and the creation of military equipment that could be used for militant purposes. Although security measures are only part of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, they strengthen inspection and review and provide certainty that proliferation does not occur in states that have been declared nuclear-weapon-free and in non-nuclear-weapon States.  Since October 16, 2019, 136 states and 136 additional euratom protocols have entered into force.
Fifteen other states have signed an additional protocol, but it has not yet entered into force. A state provisionally applies an additional protocol to its comprehensive protection agreement until it enters into force. The IAEA has established four main processes for implementing security measures. The security measures are implemented by the Protective Measures Department, which is a separate department within the International Atomic Energy Agency. The department is headed by Massimo Aparo, Deputy Director General and Head of the Security Measures Department. The direction of the Protection Measures Division is: “The main mission of the Protection Division is to manage and implement the IAEA`s safeguards. It also contributes to the control and disarmament of nuclear weapons by responding to requests for review and technical assistance in relation to relevant agreements and arrangements.  The Department is organized into operational divisions, including inspectors responsible for carrying out safety inspections in IAEA Member States, to confirm that they are complying with their obligations.